FX Excursions

FX Excursions offers the chance for once-in-a-lifetime experiences in destinations around the world.

Yellow Fever

Mar 1, 2013
2013 / March 2013

Epidemics of yellow fever struck the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries when it was carried in on ships arriving from the Caribbean. The disease attacked port cities as far north as Boston, including Philadelphia in 1793, but after 1822 it was restricted to the South. New Orleans, Mobile, Savannah and Charleston were hit hard; Memphis suffered terribly in 1878. Yellow fever epidemics caused terror, economic disruption and 100,000–150,000 deaths. Although yellow fever is no longer seen in the United States, travelers may be at risk in some areas of the world.

Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease caused by a virus related to the West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis viruses. It is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas of Sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Latin and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected female mosquito of the Aedes aegypti or Haemagogus species. Mosquitoes that feed on infected primates (human or non-human) carry the virus from one host to another, primarily between monkeys, from monkeys to humans, and from person to person. The mosquitoes breed in clean water, around houses (domestic), in the jungle (wild) or in both habitats (semi-domestic). Yellow fever cannot be transmitted by direct contact with an infected person.

Anyone can get yellow fever, but the elderly have a higher risk of severe infection. Each year there are an estimated 200,000 cases of yellow fever, causing 30,000 deaths worldwide. The number of cases increased over the past two decades due to declining population immunity, deforestation, urbanization, population movements and climate change.

Once a person is bitten by an infected mosquito, symptoms develop in three to six days. The disease progresses in three stages. Symptoms of Stage 1, or infection, include irregular heartbeat, headache, muscle and joint aches, fever, flushing, loss of appetite, dehydration, vomiting, possibly vomiting blood, and jaundice (which inspired the name “yellow fever”). Symptoms often go away after three or four days. In Stage 2, remission, fever and other symptoms go away. Most people recover at this stage, but others get worse within 24 hours. Stage 3, intoxication, involves the organs; people may experience shock; failure of the heart, liver or kidneys; bleeding disorders; gastrointestinal bleeding; secondary bacterial infections; seizures; delirium coma; and death. Up to 50 percent of those who develop severe illness die.

Inform your physician if you traveled to areas where the disease is known to thrive. Diagnosis is confirmed through a blood test for antibodies and a physical assessment. There is no specific treatment for yellow fever except supportive care in the hospital, which includes rest, pain management, intravenous fluids for hydration and blood transfusion for severe bleeding. In some cases, dialysis for kidney failure is needed.

Check with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the status of the countries you are visiting; some require certificates of vaccination for entry. Yellow fever vaccine is available at designated vaccination centers, and it is considered safe and effective, although in rare cases serious side effects occur. A single dose provides protection for 10 years. The vaccine is not recommended for children under 9 months, pregnant women or people over 60. Those who are vaccinated receive a stamped and signed International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (yellow card) which becomes valid 10 days after vaccination and is good for 10 years. Anyone at continued risk because of residence or travel should receive a booster dose every 10 years. Yellow fever vaccine can be administered at the same time as most other vaccines.

An outbreak of yellow fever began last September in the Darfur region of Sudan, placing 6 million people at risk. The World Health Organization is supporting the Ministry of Sudan to confront the outbreak.

Mosquito control is vital until vaccination takes effect. Yellow fever transmission in urban areas can be reduced by eliminating mosquito breeding sites and applying insecticides to water where they develop. Application of spray insecticides to kill adult mosquitoes during urban epidemics, combined with emergency vaccination campaigns, can reduce or halt disease transmission, buying time for vaccinated populations to build immunity. This kind of control is not possible in the jungle.

Tips for Travel to a Yellow Fever Zone

  • Get vaccinated for yellow fever at least 10 days before travel.
  • When outdoors, use an EPA-registered insect repellant containing DEET, picaridin, IR3535 or oil of lemon eucalyptus.
  • To reduce mosquito bites, wear light-colored long sleeves, long pants and socks outdoors.
  • Some mosquitoes bite through fabric. Spray clothing with EPA-registered repellant; clothing pretreated with permethrin is available.
  • Stay in well-screened and air-conditioned areas. If you stay in camps or local hotels, use bed nets and mosquito coils.
  • Beware of peak mosquito feeding hours, usually from dusk to dawn; however, the Aedes aegypti feeds during the day.

The content of this article is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

Introducing

FX Excursions

FX Excursions offers the chance for once-in-a-lifetime experiences in destinations around the world.

Explore Excursions

#globility

Insta Feed
Daily
Feb 23, 2024

The Radical: A New Boutique Hotel, Opens in Asheville, North Carolina’s, River Arts District

Once an abandoned 1923 constructed warehouse in Asheville, North Carolina, it took a creative group of designers, artists, musicians, chefs and business folks to transform a neglected, 100-year-old structure into one of Asheville’s most interesting and daring hotel projects.

Travel Tips to Help Protect Your Health and Your Trip

Five Tips to Help Minimize Potential Travel Problems

February 2024
Feb 23, 2024

Pickle Up: Get in on America’s Fastest Growing Sport

Early on, pickleball had something to do with pickles. Pickles the dog, that is. In one story, the game was named for a family dog that ran off with the ball between sets.

Daily
Feb 23, 2024

Hôtel Norman Opens Near the Top of Champs Elysées

Located a short walk from the Arc de Triomphe, Olivier Bertrand recently opened Hôtel Norman for those looking to explore the city.

Experience Luxury and Tranquility at Hamad International Airport’s Hotel

Known as one of the best airports in the world and voted Best Airport in the Middle East by Global Traveler readers, Hamad International Airport aims to set new standards for the airport industry that exceed the expectations of travelers through its facility.

Daily
Feb 23, 2024

JW Marriott Hotel Mexico City Polanco Completes Renovations

JW Marriott Hotel Mexico City Polanco recently completed renovations of its entrances, lobby, culinary concepts and meeting space. This marks the final stage of the renovation, which began in 2021 with the revitalization of its 269 guestrooms and 45 suites.

Daily
Feb 21, 2024

Make Alberta, Canada, Your Next Wellness Getaway

Rich in mountains, prairies, forests and hot springs, Alberta, Canada, takes nature and wellness travel to a whole new level. Combine the beauty of this western Canadian province with relaxation and you’re in for a treat.

Reconnecting the World: GBTA Convention 2023 Spotlights the Vital Role of Business Travel and In-Person Connection

In an increasingly digital and interconnected world, the Global Business Travel Association (GBTA) Convention remains an indispensable platform for business travel industry professionals seeking to make the most of the power of face-to-face connections. Taking place August 13–15 in Dallas, the 2023 GBTA Convention provides the unique opportunity for professionals and companies to join visionaries, thought leaders and industry experts for meaningful networking, cutting-edge insights and inspiring innovation.

eFlyer Reviews
Feb 21, 2024

Amantaka Review

You know what you’re going to get at an Aman hotel, and also you don’t. Expect peerless service, obsessive attention to detail, architectural elegance worthy of a fashion magazine, a holistic approach to wellness and astounding levels of comfort. But each property is also intimately connected to its setting, and that’s where the surprises lie. For instance, finding yourself on your knees on a sidewalk in Luang Prabang handing out sticky rice to Buddhist monks at 5:30 a.m. isn’t something we expected.