FX Excursions

FX Excursions offers the chance for once-in-a-lifetime experiences in destinations around the world.

Enterovirus Infection

by Mary Gallagher, RN, MSN, CCRN

Jul 1, 2018
Health

ENTEROVIRUSES ARE VIRUSES that enter the body through the gastrointestinal tract and live there, often moving on to attack the nervous system. These viruses are small, made up of ribonucleic acid and protein. The polioviruses are enteroviruses. In addition to the three different polio viruses, there are non-polio enteroviruses that can cause disease in humans, including coxsackieviruses and echoviruses.

Enterovirus infections are common in the United States during summer and fall. Non-polio enteroviruses are common, causing 10–15 million infections and tens of thousands of hospitalizations each year. Most infected people do not get sick or have mild illness, like the common cold. But some people experience serious complications, especially infants and people with weakened immune systems.

Infants, children and teenagers are more likely than adults to get infected and become sick because they do not yet have immunity from previous exposure to the viruses. Adults can get infected, too, but are less likely to have symptoms, or their symptoms may be milder. Symptoms of mild illness include fever, runny nose, sneezing, cough, skin rash, mouth blisters and body and muscle aches.

Some non-polio enterovirus infections can cause viral conjunctivitis; hand, foot and mouth disease; viral meningitis (infection of the covering of the spinal cord or brain); viral encephalitis (infection of the brain); myocarditis (infection of the heart); pericarditis (infection of the sac around the heart); acute flaccid paralysis (a sudden onset of weakness in one or more arms or legs); and inflammatory muscle disease (slow, progressive muscle weakness). Infants and people with weakened immune systems have a greater chance of experiencing these complications.

People who develop myocarditis may have heart failure and require long-term care. Some people who develop encephalitis or paralysis may not fully recover. Newborns infected with a nonpolio enterovirus may develop sepsis (the body’s overwhelming response to infection, which can lead to tissue damage, organ failure and death), but this is rare. Non-polio enterovirus infections may play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes in children.

Non-polio enteroviruses can be found in an infected person’s feces; eye, nose and mouth secretions such as saliva, nasal mucus or sputum; and blister fluid. You may be exposed to the virus through close contact — such as touching or shaking hands — with an infected person; touching objects containing the virus then touching your eyes, nose or mouth before washing your hands; changing diapers of an infected person; and drinking water contaminated with the virus.

Pregnant women infected with a non-polio enterovirus shortly before delivery can pass the virus to their babies. Mothers who are breastfeeding should talk with their doctor if they are sick or think they have an infection.

If you become infected, you can shed the virus in your stool for several weeks or longer. You can shed the virus from your respiratory tract, such as through coughing or sneezing, for one to three weeks or less. Many people infected with non-polio enteroviruses do not have symptoms but can still spread the virus to other people. The best way to protect yourself and others is to wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after using the toilet and changing diapers; avoid close contact such as touching people who are sick; and cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend the following hand-washing method: Wet your hands with clean, running water (warm or cold), turn off the tap and apply soap. Lather your hands by rubbing them together with the soap, including the backs of your hands, between your fingers and under your nails. Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds (hum the “Happy Birthday” song twice). Rinse your hands well under clean, running water. Dry your hands using a clean towel or air-dry them.

If soap and water are not available, use hand sanitizer containing at least 60 percent alcohol. Alcohol-based sanitizers can quickly reduce the number of germs on hands in some situations but do not eliminate all types of germs and might not remove harmful chemicals. Hand sanitizers are not as effective when hands are visibly dirty or greasy. Apply the product to the palm of one hand (read the label for the correct amount), rub your hands together and rub the product over all surfaces of your hands and fingers until your hands are dry.

There is no vaccine to protect you from nonpolio enterovirus infection, nor is there specific treatment. People with mild illness caused by non-polio enterovirus infection typically only need supportive treatment for symptoms. Drink enough water to stay hydrated and take over-thecounter cold medications as needed. Most people recover completely. However, some illnesses caused by non-polio enteroviruses are severe enough to require hospitalization.

If you are concerned about your symptoms, contact your health care provider, who will assess your condition. You will be asked about your recent health history and symptoms. Non-polio enteroviruses can be detected in stool or rectal swabs and respiratory specimens. Depending on symptoms, other specimen types such as cerebrospinal fluid, blister fluid and blood can be tested. A positive laboratory test for non-polio enteroviruses from certain specimens, such as rectal or respiratory swab, does not necessarily mean the virus is the cause of infection, as the viruses can be shed for an extended time after symptoms resolve.

The content of this article is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition

Introducing

FX Excursions

FX Excursions offers the chance for once-in-a-lifetime experiences in destinations around the world.

#globility

Insta Feed
Daily
Jun 30, 2022

London’s Historic Wiltons Celebrates 280th Birthday with Exclusive Dining Experience

First opened in 1742 by George William Wilton, a seller of oysters, shrimp and cockles near Haymarket in London, Wiltons continued drawing diners with its delicious food for more than two centuries. This summer, Wiltons celebrates its 280th birthday and its place as one of London’s most beloved fine-dining establishments with a unique dining experience.

TAP Air Portugal’s Porto

When American travelers make plans to visit Portugal, Lisbon is usually their first stop.

Daily
Jun 30, 2022

New EDITION Reykjavik Offers City’s First Luxury Lodging

Resting on the edge of Reykjavik’s Old Harbour next to the soaring, sparkling glass edifice of Harpa concert hall and conference center, the brand-new Reykjavik EDITION brings a new level of swish lodging to Iceland’s capital city. Steps from Laugavegur — the city’s main shopping street — and an easy walk to a wide selection of museums, restaurants and cafés, the newly opened hotel delivers high on luxury and service in a location ideal for becoming fully engaged in the energy of this spirited capital city.

Daily
Jun 30, 2022

OMNIYAT, Dorchester Collection Break Ground on AVA at Palm Jumeirah

Recently, more than 345 million people globally watched OMNIYAT light up the sky for the launch of AVA at Palm Jumeirah, Dorchester Collection, Dubai thanks to more than 500 drones. Now, OMNIYAT will once again illuminate the sky with one light to signify the groundbreaking of AVA at Palm Jumeirah Dorchester Collection, Dubai.

Discover a Journey Filled with Wonder in 2022

ISN’T IT TIME? It's time to treat yourself to the vacation you deserve, and Celebrity Cruises® offers the perfect escapes. With an award-winning fleet of ships that sail to more than 300 destinations around the world, Celebrity will take you almost anywhere you want to go in style. Enjoy stunning staterooms and suites, culinary experiences imagined by Michelin-starred chefs and intuitive service. Celebrity makes sure your vacation is effortless from the start, which is why drinks, WiFi and tips are Always IncludedSM on every sailing.

Daily
Jun 29, 2022

Luxurious Getaway at Ocean Casino Resort

Enjoy a relaxing getaway at Ocean Casino Resort in Atlantic City. Whether your visit is for business or leisure, the resort offers a variety of amenities and programming.

eFlyer Deals
Jun 29, 2022

Sip & Savory Offer at Palacio Provincial in Old San Juan, Puerto Rico

In time for summer, the recently opened Palacio Provincial hotel in Old San Juan, Puerto Rico, launched a new exploration-driven offer. The Sip & Savory Summer offer includes a mixology tour for two adults, a sweet or savory welcome amenity and a hotel-branded gift.

The State of Sustainability in Global Business Travel

Much of the global business travel industry has already made sustainable business travel a priority with a focus on reducing emissions and their environmental footprint. But the industry, as well as external stakeholders, such as policymakers, recognize more needs to be done.

Daily
Jun 29, 2022

Monticello NY Opens Art Space Center in Former 1940s Buick Showroom

Monticello, New York, population 6,400, is an old Catskill town in Sullivan County that thrived from the 1950s–70s, with hundreds of country resorts. Although the town lies just a two-hour drive from Manhattan's cultural attractions, Monticello always seemed light years away in terms of cultural ambiance.