World Mosquito Day, observed every Aug. 20, commemorates Sir Donald Ross, the British medical researcher who discovered the mechanism of malaria transmission. His discovery laid the foundations for scientists around the world to better understand the deadly role of mosquitoes in disease transmission and to come up with effective, innovative interventions. Sir Ross received the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work on malaria in 1902. Our understanding of the mosquito vector and its role in transmitting malaria and yellow fever — and now, of global importance, dengue, chikungunya and Zika — transformed our world. About 1,500 cases of malaria are diagnosed in the United States each year, the vast majority of the cases in travelers and immigrants returning from parts of the world where malaria transmission occurs, including sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The World Health Organization estimates 214 million clinical cases of malaria occurred globally in 2015 and 438,000 people died of malaria, most of them children in Africa. Prevention is essential, and attempts at producing an effective vaccine and clinical trials are ongoing. Yellow fever is preventable by a relatively safe, effective vaccine. Yellow fever vaccine is recommended for people older than 9 months traveling to or living in areas with yellow fever virus transmission in South America or Africa. Some countries require visitors to provide proof of yellow fever vaccination. Contraindications to receiving this vaccine include infants younger than 6 months; people with a history of acute hypersensitivity reaction to any component in the vaccine such as eggs, egg products, chicken proteins or gelatin; and those with altered immune status, HIV or AIDS. Dengue fever is prevalent in at least 100 countries in Asia, the Pacific, the Americas, Africa and the Caribbean. The WHO estimates 50 to 100 million dengue infections occur yearly, including 500,000 dengue hemorrhagic fever cases and 22,000 deaths, mostly in children. Nearly all dengue cases reported in the 48 contiguous United States were acquired elsewhere by travelers or immigrants. There is no vaccine for dengue fever. Outbreaks of chikungunya virus occurred in parts of Africa, Europe, Southeast Asia and the islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans. It was found in the Americas in 2013 and spread to the Caribbean and South, Central and North America. No vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat infection is available. The mosquitoes that spread chikungunya bite aggressively during the day. Pregnant women should strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites while traveling, as Zika infection in a pregnant woman is linked to serious birth defects and miscarriage. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend pregnant women not travel to areas with Zika outbreaks. There is no vaccine or medicine, and it can be passed from an infected man during unprotected sex. This is preventable by using condoms the right way every time during all types of sex. To date there is no evidence of transmission from a woman during sex. Reduce your risk by taking steps to prevent bites. Use EPA-registered insect repellent that contain at least 20 percent DEET for protection against mosquitoes. Use Picaridin or products that contain oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE) or para-menthane-diol (PMD). The effectiveness of insect repellents not registered with the EPA, including some natural repellents, is not known. When using repellent, follow the package instructions and reapply as directed. In general, higher percentages of the active ingredient provide longer-lasting protection. However, this increase in protection time maximizes at about 50 percent DEET. If you are also using sunscreen, apply it first, let it dry, then apply repellent. Do not use products containing both sunscreen and repellent. Do not spray repellent on the skin under clothing. Consider using clothing and gear treated with permethrin, an insecticide. Buy pre-treated clothes or treat your own clothes, following instructions carefully. Do not use permethrin directly on skin. Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants, socks and a hat. Tuck your shirt into your pants, and tuck your pants into your socks for maximum protection. Choose accommodations that are air-conditioned or have good window and door screens. If mosquitoes can get into your sleeping area, sleep under a permethrin-treated bed net that can be tucked under the mattress. When outdoors, use area repellents such as mosquito coils containing metofluthrin or allethrin. Do not use insect repellents on babies younger than 2 months. Do not use products containing OLE or PMD on children younger than 3 years. Children should not touch repellent. Adults should apply it to their own hands and gently spread it over the child’s exposed skin. Do not apply repellent to children’s hands because they tend to put their hands in their mouths. Keep repellent out of the reach of children. Protect babies younger than 2 months by draping mosquito netting over their carrier or car seat; netting should have an elastic edge for a tight fit. When used as directed, EPA-registered insect repellents are safe and effective for pregnant and breastfeeding women. The content of this article is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Though air travel slowed as airports temporarily closed and borders shuttered to stifle the spread of coronavirus, the airline industry — led by oneworld alliance member airlines — enacted enhanced protective measures to reduce risk and protect passengers.
I had just taken off my sandals, stepping onto the white-sand beach for a late-morning walk to a secluded spot I heard about from a front desk clerk, when I glanced down and saw the time on my phone. It had just turned 11 a.m., which meant it was only 7 am back home, the perfect time to call and say good morning to by husband before he left for work. Not quite ready to head back to my room, I decided I’d test the WiFi signal and made the call as I continued walking toward the shoreline.
San Antonio celebrated 300 years of progress in May 2018. With a clear vision following that anniversary year, the Texan city set its sights firmly on 300 more. While commemorating this milestone, the city underwent a major overhaul to prepare for the next phase in its history.
Are you looking for a truly unique travel experience and considering a new vehicle? The Volvo Overseas Delivery Program is the perfect solution to create your own refined adventure of a lifetime. You can custom order your new Volvo, tailored to fit your needs and desires. They will fly you to Sweden to pick up your Volvo so you can drive and explore Scandinavia and Europe on your terms for up to two weeks.
When you think of a relaxing spa day, mountains, rivers and view of gorgeous landscapes pop in your head; a place to get away from the hustle and bustle of any city’s booming music and honking taxis. SoJo Spa Club and Hotel gives you the relaxing feeling of being away while still staying close to the busy center of Manhattan.
Dance the night away with Grand Hotel’s Ballroom Dance offer, available May 16–18. Dancers of all skill levels will experience a diverse range of ballroom dance styles, alongside daily breakfast and dinner, a welcome reception and complimentary golf green fees.
Step right up to the greatest show on Earth as FXExpress Publications, Global Traveler, trazeetravel.com and whereverfamily.com celebrate their 2020 award winners! Join the big top on Dec. 14 as we virtually award the winners of the 17th annual GT Tested Reader Survey awards, including the Airline and Hotel of the Year; the 17th annual Wines on the Wing Airline Wine Survey; the eighth annual Leisure Lifestyle Awards; the sixth annual The Trazees; and the third annual Wherever Awards.