Salmonellosis

May 1, 2009
2009 / May 2009

Salmonellosis has been in the news due to contamination of some of the U.S. food supply, with the most recent outbreaks connected to peanut butter and products containing peanut butter. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration are collaborating with public health officials in many states to investigate the continuing outbreaks.

The investigation has led to King Nut Companies, a distributor of peanut butter manufactured by the Peanut Corporation of America, and the company has voluntarily recalled 2,850 items. The recall list is published at the FDA Web site (www.fda.gov).

Salmonellosis occurs when the gastrointestinal tract becomes infected with Salmonella bacteria. The disease has been more common over the past 25 years, with an estimated 2–4 million cases occurring in the United States annually. Emergence of the disease worldwide is attributed to changes in international travel and trade, as well as changes in food production systems, demographics and behavior.

Salmonella typically lives in the intestinal tract of animals, including birds and humans, and is shed through feces. Humans generally become infected through contaminated food, such as poultry, meat and eggs. Your risk for infection is higher if you travel to countries with poor sanitation.

Symptoms start with nausea and vomiting and progress to abdominal pains and diarrhea. Additional signs include fever, chills and muscle pains lasting from several days to two weeks. Most healthy individuals recover without specific treatment. In some cases, diarrhea leads to dehydration, requiring medical attention or hospitalization. Life-threatening complications may develop if the infection spreads into the bloodstream. If you have a healthy immune system, you may not feel ill at all; however, you may continue to shed the Salmonella bacteria in your feces and remain contagious for up to a year.

There are more than 2,000 types of Salmonella bacteria, although fewer than a dozen are responsible for most illness in humans. Each strain causes its own typical symptoms.

Gastroenteritis is caused by the S. enteritidis bacterium, which is most often ingested through raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs or egg products. This infection also causes blood to appear in the stool.

Enteric fever (typhoid fever) is caused by the S. typhi bacterium and is most commonly contracted through contaminated drinking water. Additional symptoms include constipation, sore throat, cough, headache and mental confusion.

Bacteremia results when Salmonella enters the bloodstream. Infants, the elderly and those with compromised immune systems are at risk. Other complications include sepsis and meningitis (infection of the tissues surrounding the brain and spinal cord).

Humans usually become infected with Salmonella when they eat foods contaminated with animal feces. Salmonella present on raw meat and poultry can survive if the food is not cooked to a minimum safe internal temperature. Foods may also become contaminated when raw meat or poultry comes in contact with other food, or when a food handler’s hands are not washed after using the bathroom. Foods contaminated with Salmonella look, smell and taste normal.

Salmonellosis is contagious, so take precautions to avoid spreading it to others. Prevention is especially important when preparing foods or providing care for infants, older adults and people with compromised immune systems.

If you think you have salmonellosis, seek medical attention. Your doctor will request a stool sample and a blood specimen for analysis. Call your doctor if you have blood in your stool, if there is no improvement after two to five days or if you experience severe vomiting, abdominal pain or dehydration.

In order to reduce salmonellosis, a comprehensive farm-to-table approach to food safety is needed. Farmers, food importers, inspectors, retailers, food service workers, consumers and travelers — all are critical links in the food safety chain. The CDC leads federal efforts to gather data and investigates food-borne illnesses and outbreaks, and monitors the effectiveness of prevention and control while working with food safety regulatory agencies. Visit www.cdc.gov.


Salmonella Safeguards

• Keep eggs refrigerated below 41 degrees. Eggs should not be unrefrigerated for more than two hours.
• Check egg cartons for expiration date. Discard cracked or dirty eggs.
• Cook eggs at least 15 seconds at 145 degrees and eat promptly after cooking.
• Avoid eating raw eggs, as in homemade ice cream or mayonnaise, cookie dough or eggnog.
• Only consume pasteurized eggs and dairy products.
• Send back eggs, meat or poultry in a restaurant if they are not adequately cooked.
• Separate raw meats from other foods in the shopping cart and in the refrigerator.
• Wash your hands before and after handling uncooked foods.
• Thoroughly clean cutting boards, knives and cooking utensils.
• Use paper towels to clean kitchen surfaces.
• Thaw foods in the refrigerator, in cool water or in the microwave — never at room temperature.
• Wash your hands after contact with all animals and birds, including pets.
• Wash your hands before and after bathroom use.
• Wash your hands after handling human or animal feces, including diapers.

Introducing

FX Excursions

FX Excursions offers the chance for once-in-a-lifetime experiences in destinations around the world.

Daily
Sep 20, 2019

Catch Autumn at the Arboretum in Dallas

Attend one of the most acclaimed fall events, Autumn at the Arboretum, in Dallas. In its 14th year, the annual event is known as one of the best pumpkin festivals in the country, with its creative displays featuring more than 90,000 pumpkins, gourds and squash. The event takes place at Dallas Arboretum, Sept. 21 –Oct. 31. Alongside thousands of pumpkins, guests glimpse 150,000 autumn flowers across the 66-acre space.

To New Heights

United Airlines announces a number of new routes.

Feature
Sep 19, 2019

Wilderness Safaris Reopens Jao Camp

Following a complete renovation, Wilderness Safaris’ Jao Camp reopened in Botswana’s Okavango Delta.

News
Sep 19, 2019

Best U.S. Cities for Oktoberfest Celebrations

WalletHub compared the 100 largest U.S. cities across 24 key metrics to determine the best destinations for an upcoming Oktoberfest celebration. The brand’s study found the estimated cost for an American to attend Oktoberfest in Munich, Germany, is $5,000. Munich boasts a $1.43 billion annual economic impact on Munich. During Oktoberfest, nearly 2 million gallons of beer are consumed and more than 510,000 whole roast chickens eaten.

TAP Air Portugal Adds 15 Flights Each Week From U.S., Canada

TAP Air Portugal is adding 15 new weekly flights from the United States and Canada by summer 2020,  a new record for the carrier of 71 weekly flights between North America and Portugal.

Feature
Sep 19, 2019

Qantas Will Start Using a Dreamliner on Santiago–Sydney Route

Qantas will start using a Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner on its Sydney–Santiago route starting in late June 2020.

eFlyer News
Sep 18, 2019

New Luxury Hotel Set to Open in China

A new hotel is slated to open in the capital of China’s Guangxi Province.

The Island of the Knights

Welcome to Rhodes, a medieval treasure beautifully preserved throughout the centuries. Rhodes is the capital of the Dodecanese, an island ideal not only for those who want to relax, but also for those looking for an action-packed holiday! With its bright green hills, rich green valleys and uninterrupted line of golden beaches, Rhodes is truly a blessed place. “The sun island” has more sunshiny days and milder temperatures throughout the year than any other location in Greece. It is, after all, one of the country’s easternmost places and among the first to welcome summer on its impressive beaches. Add in the excellent facilities for tourism, the island’s special blend of cosmopolitan and traditional, and numerous cultural and archaeological sites, the most important being the Medieval (Old) Town, a UNESCO World Heritage site, and you’ve got the perfect holiday destination. While on Rhodes, don’t miss a daytrip to nearby Sými. An island of sponge divers and seamen, Sými used to have 30,000 inhabitants before the Second World War and was the richest island in the Dodecanese, despite its small size. Today, Sými attracts many visitors thanks to its beautifully preserved Neo-Classical buildings and the famous Archangel Michael monastery at Panormitis.

eFlyer News
Sep 18, 2019

LOT Polish Airlines Adds New Route to Delhi

LOT Polish Airlines is offering travellers more options for travel between Asia and Europe.